The diseases that are widespread in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions are called Tropical diseases. The Tropical Diseases are less prevalent in temperate climates, due in part to the occurrence of a cold season, which controls the insect population. Insects such as mosquitoes and flies are by far the most common disease transporters. These insects may carry a parasite, bacterium or virus that is infectious to humans and animals. Commonly the disease is transmitted by the byte of an insect. That byte causes transmission of the infectious agent through subcutaneous blood exchange.
In 1975 the United Nations Children's Fund, the United State’s Development Programme, the World Bank and the World Health Organization established the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) to focus on ignored contagious diseases which disproportionately affect poor and marginalized populations in developing regions of Africa, Asia, Central America and South America.
Human exploration of tropical rainforests, deforestation, rising immigration and increased international air travel and other tourism to tropical regions has led to an increased incidence of such diseases.
African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness, is a parasitic disease, caused by protozoa called trypansomes. The two responsible for African trypanosomiasis are Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. These parasites are transmitted by the tsetse fly. Leishmaniasis caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by the bite of certain species of sand fly.
We can prevent the Tropical Diseases through the prevention treatment. The Prevention treatment includes draining wetlands to reduce populations of insects and other vectors, applying insecticides and/or insect repellents to strategic surfaces such as: clothing, skin, buildings, insect habitats, and bed nets.