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DNA is the most effective technological tool that is available for recognition in forensic investigations. It is known as “fingerprint” since it is highly unlikely that any two individuals have similar DNA characteristics. Owing to its capability to link physical proof discovered at a criminal activity to an individual, it is often termed as a “digital fingerprint.” This method has the capability to produce 100 % accurate results. Unlike in fingerprints, DNA prevails in every cell of the body system, from hair and blood stream to skin and tears, and can be deposited while engaging in a criminal activity.
It is a significant methodology that is used to determine the blood relationships. This method is highly useful in establishing the disputed cases of paternity biologically (covering both father and mother) of a child. This testing is carried out on the basis of PCR Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and PCR Polymerase chain reaction.
With one in every sixty births leading to the delivery of twins, twin testing has assumed importance. Twins are either dizygotic (called as fraternal) or monozygotic (called as identical). Dizygotic twins are caused by two different eggs being fertilized by two individual sperms and result in two absolutely unique and individual child births in the uterus at the same time. Monozygotic twins are caused by one egg fertilized by a single sperm.
In a majority of instances, parents are provided with incorrect information during the period of their twin birth on the basis of imperfect information or incorrect evaluation of the placenta. Unless the twins are of different genders or inside a single amniotic sac, analyzing the babies or the placenta with the naked eye will not yield beneficial results.