The introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that causes adverse change is called Pollution. Pollution can take place in the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. The components that cause the pollution are called Pollutants. Pollutants are either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution can be classified as, point source pollution and nonpoint source pollution. A point source of pollution is a single identifiable source of air, water, thermal, and noise or light pollution.
A point source has a simple extent, distinguishing it from other pollution source geometries. Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution refers to both water and air pollution from the diffuse sources. Nonpoint source air pollution affects the quality of air by reducing the goodness from sources such as smokestacks or car tailpipes. Although these pollutants have originated from a point source, the long-range transport ability and multiple sources of the pollutant make it a nonpoint source of pollution. Nonpoint source pollution can be contrasted with point source pollution, where discharges occur to a body of water or into the atmosphere at a single location.
The atmosphere is one of the few resources shared among all Earth’s inhabitants. As a consequence, the pollution that spews from a factory in Asia, a fire in Australia, a dust storm in Africa, or car emissions in North America can have a detrimental impact on people and the environment locally or an ocean away. Scientists have researched and documented many of the local hazards from ozone to atmospheric chemicals that cause acid rain.
Generally we need to keep an agreement that we must control pollution of our air, water, and land, but there is considerable clash over how controls should be designed and how much control is enough. The pollution control mechanisms give the detailed explanation of techniques and leaving polluters little choice in how to achieve the environmental goals. This “command-and-control” strategy needlessly increases the cost of pollution controls and may even slow our progress toward a cleaner environment.