Sunday, 31 March 2013

Water Supply and Demand

Water supply:

Water supply system infrastructure for the collection, transmission, treatment, and storage of water for homes, professional businesses, industry, and irrigation, as well as for such public needs as firefighting and street flushing. Of all public services, provision of safe and clean water is perhaps the most vital. People depend on water for drinking, cooking, washing, carrying away waste materials, and other domestic needs. Water systems must also meet specifications for public, professional, and industrial activities. In all cases, water must fulfill both quality and quantity specifications.

Development in supply systems:

Water was an important aspect in the location of the first settled communities, and the progress of public water supply systems is tied directly to the growth of places. In the development water resources beyond their natural condition in rivers, ponds, and springs, the digging of superficial wells was probably the first innovation.

Construction of Qantas, a slightly sloping tunnels motivated into hillsides that included groundwater, probably originated in ancient Persia about 700 bce. From the hillsides the water was conveyed by gravity in open channels to nearby towns or cities.

Development in water treatment:

Water treatment is the alteration of a water source to experience a quality that fits specified goals. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, the definitive goal was reduction of dangerous water-borne diseases. The treatment of public drinking water to eliminate pathogenic, or disease-causing, harmful bacteria began about that time. Treatments methods included sand filtration system as well as the use of chlorine for disinfection. The virtual elimination of diseases such as cholera and typhoid in developed countries showed the success of this water-treatment technology.

Water Sources Demand:

Water is present in numerous amounts on and under the Earth's surface, but less than 1 percent of it is fluid water. Most of Earth's approximated 1.4 billion cubic km (326 million cubic miles) water is in the oceans or frozen in polar ice caps and glaciers. Sea water contains about 35 grms per liter (4.5 ounces per gallon) of dissolved minerals or salt, making it unsuitable for drinking and for most commercial or agricultural uses.

Friday, 29 March 2013

Saltwater intrusion


Saltwater intrusion represents the process by which sea water infiltrates coastal groundwater systems, thus combining with the local fresh water supply. Groundwater is stored in the pores and fractures of rock within the surface, and the rock structures containing groundwater are termed as aquifers. Aquifers are naturally replenished by way of precipitation (rain, snow) that penetrates into the ground and eventually reaches to the water table.

The water table is simply the boundary between the upper part of the ground that is only partially soaked with water (unsaturated zone) and the lower part where all the pore spaces and fractures are fully soaked with water. The level of the water table at any point is often referred to as the “hydraulic head.”

Salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers is brought on by two mechanisms:

•             Lateral encroachment from the sea due to excessive water distributions from coastal aquifers,.
•             Upward activity from deeper saline areas due to upconing near coastal discharge/pumping water wells.

How to Prevent Water Intrusion

People in the United States sink have been relying on groundwater aquifers as a source of fresh water for a growing population for over a century. They made effort to prevent continuous salt water intrusion by developing a sequence of injection wells.

These injection wells were tactically placed with the idea that if they included fresh water into the aquifers at a given place, then they might be able to develop barriers to prevent further intrusion of the salt water. These limitations proved to only be partly efficient, and only prevented further salt water encroachment into the fresh water aquifer.

Controlling Saltwater Intrusion

 The key to manage salt water intrusion is to maintain the appropriate balance between water being pumped from an aquifer and the amount of water re-charging it.  Constant monitoring of the salt-water interface is necessary in determining the proper management technique.  In the past, many areas that came across a salt water intrusion problem simply set up new production wells.  This only complicated the issue.

Wednesday, 27 March 2013

Physical cosmology

Physical cosmology is a self-discipline within the physical sciences that popularly brings about many border issues with metaphysical and theological importance. Some of these issues are discussed in the group of researchers learning physical cosmology when they need to explain their techniques and choose whether what they are doing still matters as science. As complicated as methodological issues in physical cosmology can be, these self-policing actions among researchers are just the tip of the iceberg of philosophical discussion. Because these issue all of physical reality, at least in some aspects, its findings and concepts and issues possess significance.

Physical cosmologists imagine that the nature of the universe is controlled entirely by physical laws and is limited to those regulations which can be successfully proven through repeatable analysis. Researchers recommend the possible existence of these physical regulations both through the direct statement of natural phenomena and, in the case of theoretical physics, by using arithmetic as a symbolic language for examining physical problems.

Philosophical cosmologies:

A second perspective is procedure cosmology, which is a way of naturalism. All naturalistic cosmologies clearly refuse the truth of supernatural entities, and procedure cosmology is no exception; the causal web of the world is unbroken because there is nothing to break it. The procedure cosmology is a natural enterprise within the world that performs a unique part in every causal interaction.

The three classes of philosophical cosmologies are:

Super-natural cosmologies of which the ground-of-being cosmologies respond quite in a different way to the findings and theoretical designs of physical cosmology.”It has the most versatility because of the sensible area between the character of the natural world and the personality of God as, and thus can stay relatively independent of physical cosmology.

Ground-of-being cosmologies have the least versatility in its reactions to physical cosmology because God just is the statistical, relational, causal components and innovative procedures of characteristics.

Process cosmologies is somewhere in between; physical cosmology can reveal value components that indicate the primordial characteristics of God, but the fundamental causal components of the universe.

Tuesday, 26 March 2013

Planetary Science


Planetary science is the study of planet's and their planetary techniques such as moons, ring techniques, gas atmosphere, and magnetospheres. It contains understanding how planetary techniques established, how these techniques work and how all their elements communicate. It is a cross-discipline field such as factors of astronomy, environmental technology, geology, space science, chemistry.

Planetary Astronomy:

                This is for both observational and a theoretical technology. Observational scientists are primarily involved with the research of the small techniques of the solar system: those that are noticed by telescopes, both optical and stereo, so that features of these techniques such as form, rotate, surface components and enduring are identified and the record of their development and progress can be recognized. Theoretical planetary astronomy is involved with dynamics use of the concepts of heavenly techniques to the Solar Program and extra solar planetary techniques.

Planetary Geology:

The best known analysis subjects of planetary geology cope with the planetary systems in the near area of the Earth, Moon and the two nearby planets: Venus and Mars. Of these the Moon was analyzed first, using techniques designed previously on the World.


Geomorphology researches the functions on planetary areas and reconstructs the record of their development, inferring the physical procedures that served on the outer lining area. Planetary geomorphology contains research of several sessions of surface feature:

•             Effect functions. 
•             Volcanic and tectonic functions. 
•             Space weathering of which the erosional results produced by the severe atmosphere of space. 
•             Hydrological features: the fluid engaged can range from water to hydrocarbon and ammonia, based on the place within the Solar System.

Atmospheric Science:

The atmosphere is an important area between the solid planetary surface and the higher rarefied ionizing and rays straps. Not all planets’ have atmospheres: their existence which depends on the mass of the earth, and the earth's distance from the Sun too far away and freezing environments happen.

Monday, 25 March 2013

Tidal Power


 Tidal Power: Tidal Power is the creation of electric energy through the utilizing of the ebb and circulation of the tides.

How it works?

Tidal which is in fact a large dam, is designed across a stream estuary or bay. This barrage has gateways in it which allow the water has to circulation into the barrage with the inbound tide. These gateways are then shut when the tide starts to go back out. This water which is now stuck within the barrage is now known as a ‘hydrostatic head’. The higher the go the more energy can be produced from the out flowing water. There are other gateways within the onslaught which are now opened; these gateways contain hydro-electric generators, very just like the ones used in Hydropower. These turbines are now converted by the out flowing water and energy is produced.


Small-scale tidal generators were used in the Center Age groups for grinding corn. The barrages which are designed can be used as a ways to combination the estuary with much less effort. The main application of tidal power is as an extra indicates of producing renewable, maintainable power which does not impact the surroundings in a bad way.


•  To maintain it is very inexpensive.
•  No wastage.
•  Very reliable.
•  We can estimate when tides will be in or out.
•  The barrage can help to decrease the destruction of very great tidal rises or stormy weather on the land.


• It changes the shoreline absolutely and the estuaries are filled so any mud apartments that are destroyed
• Preliminary developing price is very expensive
• Water is not refreshed, it cannot circulation away so any dust remains around the shore much longer.
• Silt creates up behind the barrage
• Interrupts creatures’ migration in the rivers
• Needs a very big item of sea to be price effective

Sunday, 24 March 2013

Solar Energy

Solar power:

Solar power is energy from the sun and without its existence all life on earth would end. Solar energy has been seemed upon as a serious source of energy for many years because of the vast amount of energy that is made easily available.

Solar energy innovation, quite simply, is power that comes from the sun. But there are now many kinds of solar energy technological innovation targeted on making use of that energy and switching it into useful electricity or heat.

Different types of Energy Technologies in Existence today?

Photovoltaic (PV) panels

Solar power Photovoltaic panels, is a technology in which sunlight is turned into electric energy.  Solar power Photovoltaic uses energy from the sun to create electricity that will operate electric equipment and lighting.

Thin-Film Photovoltaic

Photovoltaic are of a) lighter in weight, b) less of the expensive silicon material required, and c) other types of photovoltaic material (amorphous silicon) can be used. 

Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV)

The Concentrated Photovoltaic advantage over these other systems involves a smaller impact because the residential solar panels are made of multi-junction residential solar panels with multi-focusing solar cells, with concentrating rather than flat silicon cells.

Installing Solar PV

Solar PV panels, a clear, continuous and unshaded area of ceiling is required, with southern or near south orientation. The ceiling needs to be large enough to provide the Solar PV modules, structurally sound and built using materials that are suitable with a fixing system that is easily obtainable.

Advantages & Disadvantages of solar energy

             It is free and numerous energy provided by nature itself
             These are environmental friendly – as an alternative green source of power.
             Solar panels (photovoltaic PV panels) can be easily placed in areas.


             The cost of solar energy system is high compared to conventional alternatives.
             Solar energy is directly dependent on weather condition in rain, clouds is considered highly stable.

Relationship between Medicine and Biology

Medicine and Biology:

Medicine has two basic definitions, it represents  The Science of Healing; the practice of the analysis, treatment and prevention of disease, and the promotion of health and on other hand  the Medicines, drugs, ingredients used to treat and cure illnesses, and to promote health. 

                Medicine is a.) Drug
                                 b.) avoiding or treating diseases
                                 c.) Treatment of diseases which affects internal parts of the body.

Alternative Medicine contains any practice which statements to cure but does not fall within the realm of conventional/traditional medicine. In most situations, it is based on social or conventional traditions, instead of scientific proof. Scientific represents, for example, indicating the efficiency or a treatment or drug in a double-blind, random, long-term, large medical human study (clinical trial), in which the treatment or drug is in compared to either a placebo or another therapy/drug.

Relationship between Biology and Medicine:

Traditional way to the systematic study of natural sciences, such as biology and medicine, has often been prepared to take the reductionist path. The origins of such reductionism stem from the common assumption that characteristics are controlled by simple regulations. As a result, the most apparent strategy for understanding complicated organic systems in common was to reduce the system into smaller sized, simpler, and therefore more tractable, models.

                The huge of details produced through the reductionist approach over the last several years has not only assisted in knowing the biology of one's human body in some details, it has also permitted us to recognize the aberrations that happen under circumstances of various illness circumstances.

Limitations in Medicine:

The science of medication has particularly honored the reductionist strategy ever since its beginning. The overriding supposition was that any modifications in the physical condition was the result of breakdown, or changed operate, of the best element and, therefore, if that particular element could be focused and brought back to normalcy it would accomplish reversion of the changed physical condition to its normal condition.

Friday, 22 March 2013

Mathematical Modeling


Mathematical Modeling is information of a program using mathematical ideas and language. Mathematical models are used not only in the natural sciences and technological innovation professions but also in the social sciences, physicists, technicians, statisticians, research experts and economic experts use mathematical designs most substantially. 

A model may help to describe a program and to study the effects of different elements, and to make forecasts about behavior. Mathematical model can take several types, but not restricted to dynamical systems, differential equations, or game theoretic designs. These and additional types of models can overlap, with a specified model along with a variety of subjective elements. In general, mathematical models may include sensible designs, as far as reasoning is taken as a part of mathematics.

Principles of Mathematical Modeling:

Mathematical modeling is a principled action that has both principles behind it and techniques that can be efficiently used. The concepts are over-arching or meta-principles phrased as concerns about the objectives and reasons of mathematical modeling. In characteristics meta-principles are almost philosophical .We will now summarize the concepts, and in the next area we will temporarily evaluation some of the techniques.

Initially recognize the need for the model and next find Record the information we are looking for. Then recognize the available appropriate information. Then assume and recognize the conditions that implement. Then recognize the governing physical concepts. We have to predict the equations that will be used, the computations that will be created, and the solutions that will result. The model predicts assessments that can be made to confirm the model, i.e., is it reliable with its concepts and assumptions. Finally verify the assessments that can be made to confirm the design, i.e., is it useful with regards to the preliminary purposes it were done.

Mathematical modeling is an activity or process that allows a mathematician to be a drug store, an ecologist, an economist, a physiologist etc.

Isotopic Analysis


Isotopes are different kinds of atoms of the same chemical element, each having a different atomic mass. These are broken into two specific types: stable and radioactive. There are over 300 known normally occurring stable isotopes. The Stable Isotope Geosciences Facility concentrates on the measurement of normally occurring light element stable isotopes of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Isotopic Abundances:

Light elements contain different ratios of at least two isotopes. Usually one isotope is the primarily numerous isotope. For example, the common natural abundance of 14N is 99.64%, while the average abundance for 15N is 0.36%. Understanding these abundances allows the specialist figure out if a sample is enriched or exhausted in a particular isotope. 

Natural Isotopic Abundances:

Heavy Isotopes go through all of the same substance reactions as light isotopes, but, basically because they are heavier, they do it ever so a little bit more slowly. These small variations in reaction rates cause the products of reaction to have different isotope percentages than the resource components. Understanding the accurate isotope percentages in plant and animal cells allows us to know about the procedures by which the components were formed. 

Isotopic Fractionation:

 Isotopic fractionation causes constant isotopic variety modifications. Fractionation is brought on by the variations in the chemical and physical properties of a certain atomic mass and issues the concepts of isotope exchange and kinetic procedures in reaction rates. Changes in heat range are just an example of an isotope exchange procedure that can cause fractionation in an isotopic ratio.

Gas pressure can also have an important part in identifying the scale of fractionation results. Some illustrations of kinetic isotope procedures are evaporation and condensation, diffusion, and dissociation responses.

Delta value is nothing but knowing the procedures that may impact the isotopic relationship in a specific type is an important step toward understanding isotopic delta principles (d) are measured.